Drishti Judiciary : List of Vocabulary
Welcome to Drishti Judiciary - Powered by Drishti IAS

List of Vocabulary

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z   

  • From the beginning.
This contract is void ab initio.
  • To put an end to, To Curtail.
The provision of the act now stands abated.
  • To induce a person to go from any place by force or deceitful means.
A was abducted while coming back from office.
  • To instigate or encourage the commission of a crime.
A abets B to kill C.
  • A state of suspension.
The law favours that property should not remain in abeyance.
  • To put an end to.
The practise of Satipratha was abolished during the reign of Governer General William Bentick.
  • To Make Shorter, to curtail, to diminish.
Freedom of speech was abridged on the ground of public policy.
  • The fact of accepting.
Acceptance must be absolute and unqualified to convert a proposal into promise.
  • An associate in crime or guilt.
Conviction is not illegal merely because it proceeds upon uncorroborated testimony of an accomplice.
  • An allegation against a person that he has committed an offence.
Accusations against the accused were proved by the prosecution.
  • A person against whom an allegation has been made that she/he has committed an offence.
The accused was charged with the offence of murder.
  • To set free from the charge of an offence after trial.
The court acquitted the accused as prosecution was not able to prove the case beyond reasonable doubts.
  • Allowability as judicial proof, the quality of being admissible.
A Judge decides the admissibility of Evidence.
  • A voluntary acknowledgment of the existence of a fact or the truth of an allegation made by a party in a dispute.
An admission is a statement which suggests any inference as to any fact in issue or relevant fact.
  • A gentle reproof to a convict in lieu of punishment.
The court can release offenders under S.3 of Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 after admonition.
  • One who is qualified to plead before the court of law.
The advocate applied for bail in Session's Court.
  • The Highest Law Officer of the states in India.
For a person to be appointed as Advocate General he must be qualified to be a judge of the High Court.
  • A fight, or argument or an instance of violent behaviour in a public place.
Punishment provided for the offence of affray is imprisonment of up to one month or a fine up to Rs 100.
  • A relationship between two parties in which one, the agent, represents the other, the principal, in day-to-day transactions.
No consideration is necessary to create an agency.
  • A person employed to do any act for another or to represent another in dealings with third person.
The agent was employed by the principal.
  • When two persons are related either by blood or adoption or wholly through males
The property of a male Hindu dying intestate shall devolve upon the agnates of the deceased in the absence of class II heirs.
  • Every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other, is an agreement.
An agreement not enforceable by law is said to be void.
  • A foreigner.
Alien enemies residing in India may sue with the permission of the Central Government.
  • Modification or change.
Alteration in the maintenance allowance can be made under Section 127 of the Criminal Procedure Code.
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) refers to any means of settling disputes outside of the courtroom.
Conciliation is a form of alternative dispute resolution mechanism.
  • Any alteration made or proposed by adding, deleting or substituting something.
The amendments to the constitution can be made under Article 368 of the Constitution of India.
  • One from whom a person descends.
An ancestor's lineage up to 5 degrees from father's side fall under sapinda relationship.
  • Subservient, related and supplementary.
Ancillary Medical Services would not be available for a term of one month.
  • Bail in anticipation of arrest.
Anticipatory Bail can only be granted by the Court of Session or the High Court.
  • A proceeding taken before a superior court or authority for reversing or modifying decision of an inferior court.
A second appeal lies to the High Court in civil cases only on substantial question of law.
  • The action of appearing formally.
Party's pleader made appearance before the court.
  • The Appropriate Government refers to either the Union Government or The State Government.
The appropriate government can commute the death sentence.
  • Determination of a matter in dispute by Aribtrators. (Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996)
The arbitration clause was added to the agreement by the parties.
  • That which remains unpaid.
The arrears of rent were not paid.
  • Any willful attempt or threat to inflict injury upon the person of another, when coupled with an apparent present ability to do so.
Mere words are not punishable under assault under the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • A property attached by the court for the purpose of execution.
The attached property was ordered to be sold by the court.
  • The action of attaching.
The court ordered for the attachment of property of A.
  • The Attorney General of India is the Chief Legal Advisor of the Government of India.
For a person to be appointed as Attorney General of India he must be qualified to be a judge of the Supreme Court.
  • A body entrusted with the right or power to do something.
Delhi Development Authority revised its slum rehabilitation policy.
  • Temporary release from imprisonment on furnishing surety or security to appear for trial.
The court gave bail to the accused of a bailable offence.
  • One to whom goods are bailed.
Bailee should take care of goods bailed as a man of ordinary prudence.
  • Bailment is the delivery of goods by one person to another for some purpose, upon a contract that they shall, when the purpose is accomplished, be returned or otherwise disposed of according to the directions of the person delivering them.
In bailment delivery of goods can be actual or constructive.
  • One who delivers goods under bailment.
Bailor should disclose faults in goods bailed.
  • The relative merits of the parties' case and the computation of loss suffered by the parties.
For grant of temporary injunction the balance of convenience should lie in the favour of the plaintiff.
  • The act of begging.
Under S. 9 of the Uttar Pradesh Prohibition of Beggary Act, police officer may arrest any person who is found begging.
  • Enjoyment in one's own right and for one's own benefit and not as a trustee.
An easement is a right which the owner possesses, as such, for the beneficial enjoyment of that land.
  • In good faith
For an act to fall under Section 81 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 it should be a Bonafide act.
  • A formal written agreement by which a person undertakes to perform a certain act.
Court may accept a bond by a surety only in lieu of a minor.
  • Having a legal duty to do something.
A was not bound by law to pay the debt of B.
  • A breach of contract occurs whenever a party to a contract fails to perform their promised obligations.
Court can award compensation for loss or damage caused by breach of contract.
  • The offer and acceptance of bribe.
A person who accepts or agrees to accept bribe also comes under the ambit of bribery.
  • A plan of how to spend an amount of money over a particular period of time.
Provisions of budget are discussed under Article 112 of The Constitution of India.
  • Nullification of a written document.
Court may allow partial cancellation of an instrument.
  • A picture or description of somebody that makes his/her appearance or behaviour funnier and more extreme.
A caricature is a document.
  • Evidences of indirect nature.
Circumstantial Evidence needs to be admitted with due care.
  • The status of a citizen of a country.
India allows single citizenship to its citizens.
  • Application of force either physical or moral as to constraint someone to act against his will.
A contract where the consent is caused by coercion is voidable.
  • When two persons are related by blood or adoption but not wholly through males
The property of a male Hindu dying intestate shall devolve upon the cognates of the deceased, if there is no agnate.
  • Where Poilce Officer can arrest without warrant.
Theft is a cognizable offence.
  • Jurisdiction over the hearing and trying of a case.
A magistrate can take cognizance of an offence upon a police report.
  • Connected or related to commerce.
The Civil Procedure Code, 1908 was amended in accordance with The Commercial Courts Act, 2015.
  • An intention shared by all concerned.
Common Intention is punishable under S. 34 of the India Penal Code, 1860.
  • An object shared by all concerned.
Common Object is punishable under S.149 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • The substitution of a lesser punishment for a greater one.
Commutation of death sentence is provided by Section 54 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • The party who makes the complaint in a legal action or proceeding.
A complainant shall be examined on oath by the magistrate.
  • A formal accusation in the court of law.
A magistrate can take cognizance under Section 190 of Criminal Procedure Code on a criminal complaint.
  • The action of concealing.
Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body is punishable under Section 318 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • When one fact is declared by this Act to be conclusive proof of another, the Court shall, on proof of the one fact, regard the other as proved, and shall not allow evidence to be given for the purpose of disproving it.
Marriage is conclusive proof of paternity unless rebutted by non-access.
  • Running together in time or space.
According to Section 31 of Code of Criminal Procedure, if accused is convicted for two or more offences, then they should run concurrently.
  • The concurrent list consists of subjects of common interest to both the Union and the States.
Criminal Law is a subject under the concurrent list.
  • An order having a condition added to it
A District Magistrate, Sub Divisional Magistrate or other Executive Magistrate can pass conditional order under Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • To pardon.
The Court condoned the delay.
  • The action of confessing or acknowledging one's guilt.
A confession made to the Police cannot be proved against the accused.
  • A concurrence of will.
The consent of the party was obtained by fraud.
  • Something that happens or follows as a result of something else.
An unlawful act always results in unfavorable consequences.
  • A planning and acting together secretly especially for an unlawful or harmful purpose.
A and B entered into a conspiracy to murder C.
  • Any case involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution must be decided by a Bench of at least five judges. Such a Bench is called a Constitution Bench.
The provision related to constitution bench is provided by Article 145(3) of the Constitution of India.
  • That which has not the character assigned to its own nature but acquires such character in consequence of the way in which it is regarded by a rule of or of policy of law.
Constructive Res Judicata is provided by Explanation IV of Section 11 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • That which is contained within something.
The contents of the documents may be proved by primary or secondary evidence.
  • Possible, but not assured ; conditioned upon the occurrence of some future event which is itself uncertain, or questionable.
Contingent agreements to do or not to do anything, if an impossible event happens, are void.
  • An interest that the holder may enjoy only upon the occurrence of a condition precedent...
A contingent interest becomes vested interest when the condition precedent is fulfilled.
  • An agreement enforceable by law.
The contract between the parties was illegal.
  • A person found guilty of an offense.
A was convicted for the offence of murder.
  • The upper house of India's bicameral Parliament.
The Vice President of India is the ex officio chairman of Rajya Sabha.
  • Imitate with the intent to deceive.
A was punished for the offence of counterfeiting coins.
  • A Judge or a body of Judges which is empowered by law to act judicially as a body when such Judge or body of Judges is acting judicially.
A Panchayat acting under Regulation VII of 1816, of the Madras Code, having power to try and determine suits, is a Court of Justice
  • A Court of Session is the highest Criminal Court in a district and the court of first instance for trying serious offences.
Session Courts can award death penalty subject to High Court's confirmation.
  • An agreement by deed between two or more persons to do one or more thing or things.
Many international covenants mention about the concept of human dignity.
  • A person to whom a debt is owned by another person called the debtor.
In a contract of guarantee the person to whom the guarantee is given is the creditor.
  • The examination of a witness by the adverse party.
Leading Questions may be asked in cross examination.
  • The crime of killing a person under circumstances previously defined by statute that does not amounts to murder.
The punishment for the offence of culpable homicide is provided by Section 304 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • Robbery committed by a gang of 5 persons.
The offence of Dacoity is punishable under Section 395 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • The act of delegation.
Delegated Legislation is an integral part of administrative law.
  • To testify or give (evidence, etc) on oath.
The witness deposed his testimony in court.
  • The action of derogating, detraction .
There can be no derogation from the terms of a contract.
  • The action of detaining; Keeping in confinement or custody.
No arrest or detention of a woman can be done in execution of a money decree.
  • The act of freeing from an obligation.
The court can discharge the accused before the trial begins.
  • Pertaining to discretion.
The Court utilized its discretionary powers.
  • Not worthy of trust or belief
A tried to obtain money from B dishonestly.
  • The act of depravation of office.
News of A's dismissal came after charges of corruption were proved against him.
  • To refuse to recognize.
A was disowned from his parent's property.
  • To refuse to recognize.
A was disowned from his parent's property.
  • To separate and go in different directions.
The unlawful assembly was ordered to be dispersed.
  • A situation or fact that means one is not allowed or able to participate in something.
Disqualification for the membership of Parliament is provided under Article 102 of the Constitution of India.
  • A bench constituting of two judges.
The Division Bench of Gujarat High Court passed a sentence of death.
  • The legal end of a marriage..
Divorce by mutual consent can be obtained under Section 13-B of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
  • Documents that can be presented as evidence.
Contents of a document can only be proved by documentary evidence.
  • The place where one has permanent residence to which if absent, he has the intention of returning.
A state where a person permanently resides is considered to be his domicile.
  • A gift of personal property by a person on the point of death.
A person suffering from marz who is under the apprehension of maut can make donatio mortis causa.
  • To whom the gift is made.
If the donee dies before acceptance, gift becomes void.
  • One who makes a gift.
Gift must be accepted during the lifetime of the donor.
  • Dower is security given by husband to his wife so that she can maintain herself after divorce or death of her husband.
Dower is an essential part of Muslim marriage.
  • Dowry Death relates to death of a woman within 7 years of marriage under unnatural circumstances in relation to dowry demands by her husband or his family.
For the offence of dowry death, death of woman must take place within 7 years of marriage.
  • An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.
A right of way annexed to A’s house over B’s land is a discontinuous easement.
  • An unforeseen combination of circumstances or the resulting state that calls for immediate action.
National emergency can be imposed under Article 352 of the Constitution of India.
  • To put in peril.
Driving a vehicle on a public way so as to endanger human life is a punishable offence.
  • To compel the observance of.
It is the duty of the Police to enforce law.
  • a legal right to do something or have something
A person entitled to the possession of specific immovable property may recover it in the manner provided by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
  • Property in which one has a right or interest.
The estate passed on to the heir after death of the owner.
  • The act of deliberately ending a person's life to relieve suffering.
The provision of active Euthanasia is illegal in India.
  • With respect to or in the interests of one side.
A did not apper before the court and court passed an ex parte order.
  • The examination of witness by the party who calls him.
Leading Questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party be asked in an examination-in-chief.
  • Exclusion of anything or a person.
The definitions of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 are to be read subject to the exceptions provided therein.
  • The action of executing or carrying into effect.
The court that passed the decree can execute it.
  • Opinion of a person who has made special study of a subject or acquired special experience therein.
Expert Opinion is a relevant fact under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
  • The action or practice of extorting anything, especially money, from a person by force or by undue exercise of authority or power.
The provisions relating to the offence of extortion are provided by Sections 383-389 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • To forge.
To fabricate false evidence is a punishable offence under Section 192 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • An actual and absolute reality, as distinguished from mere supposition or opinion.
Fact means and includes, any mental condition of which any person is conscious.
  • Untrue Evidence.
Presenting false evidence in the court of law is a punishable offence.
  • The act of depriving someone of something in consequence of an offence or breach of a condition.
'A' could not repay his debt and hence his property was forfeited.
  • Using false representation to obtain an unjust advantage.
Being silent if the person has duty to speak constitutes fraud.
  • In a deceitful manner.
A person fraudulently does something if he does it with an intent to defraud.
  • Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation, and mistake.
Free Consent is defined under Section 14 of the Indian Contract Contract, 1872.
  • A voluntary transfer by one person to another of any existing movable or immovable property, made without consideration
A gift is a transfer of property without consideration.
  • A state of mind indicating honesty and lawfulness of purpose.
A communication made in good faith, if causes harm to any person, makes no offence.
  • The executive head of each state of Union of India.
The Governor of a state is appointed by the President.
  • The executive head of each state of Union of India.
The Governor of a state is appointed by the President.
  • Without valuable or legal consideration.
A made gratuitous transfer of property in favour of B.
  • Action of securing or guaranteeing security .
A contract of guarantee may be oral or written.
  • Action of securing or guaranteeing security .
A contract of guarantee may be oral or written.
  • One who has or is entitled to the custody of the person or property of a minor or an idiot.
The court can appoint the guardian of a person under the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890
  • Intent pertaining to deserving punishment and moral reprobation.
The accused had guilty intentions at the time of committing the act.
  • A person who is persistently leading a dishonest and criminal life.
A person who habitually harbours thieves is a habitual offender.
  • To give shelter to.
Harbouring persons hired for an unlawful assembly is a punishable offence.
  • The Highest Court of Justice in states.
At present there are 25 High Court in the territory of India.
  • A person who possess in virtue of a lawful title.
Holder of a promissory note is a person who is entitled to the possession in his own name.
  • The lower house of India's bicameral Parliament.
The money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • Process by which a legislative body or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a public official.
Impeachment of president can be done on the ground of Violation of Constitution.
  • Indicated not by express words but by logical inference.
Where acceptance is made otherwise than in words, the promise is said to be implied.
  • To place athouritatively.
Heavy fine was imposed on A.
  • Security or protection against hurt, loss or damage.
Government agreed to indemnify tax payers against any loss.
  • That which induces, something attractive by which a person is led on or persuaded to action.
A Confession caused by inducement is irrelevant under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
  • A Court order commanding or preventing an action.
The Court passed an order for temporary injunction.
  • Infringement of rights of another in his person, reputation or property for which an action lies at law.
An injury under law can be caused to a person's body,mind,reputation or property.
  • Without practical force.
An inoperative law does not have any effect.
  • Unsoundness of mind as a consequence of brain disease, madness, mental derangement.
If legal insanity is proved such a person cannot be convicted under the law.
  • The fact of presentment of suit in Court of Law.
Institution of suit shall be made by presentation of plaint.
  • A suit pleaded between two parties to determine a matter of claim or right to property held by a third party.
Procedure for Interpleader Suit is provided under Order 35 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • Between Living Persons.
Transfer of property by sale can be made intervivos.
  • A substance that produces false feeling of pleasure, happiness and a lack of control.
Intoxicants should not be consumed.
  • The collective sitting of both the Houses of Parliament called by the President of India which is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
The Joint Sitting of both the houses is provided under Article 108 of the Constitution of India.
  • One invested with authority to determine any cause or question in court of justice.
An assistant Session Judge cannot pass a sentence of imprisonment of more than 10 years.
  • A separation of husband or wife under the orders of court which puts an end to cohabitation but not to marriage.
A court can grant decree of judicial separation under S. 10 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
  • The authority or power of a court to entertain and decide any judicial proceeding.
The Session Court has jurisdiction to try murder cases.
  • A person who is an expert in law.
The President can appoint a distinguished Jurist as a Judge of the Supreme Court.
  • A body of persons , corporation, partnership or other legal entity recognized by law as subject of rights and duties.
An Idol of God is considered a juristic person.
  • Subject to action of court of justice.
Directive Principles of State Policy are non-justiciable.
  • Having legal justification for an act.
A private person is justified by law to arrest a proclaimed offender.
  • An act of stealing, adbucting or carrying away a person by force or fraud.
Kidnapping is of two kinds - Kidnapping from India and Kidnapping from lawful guardianship.
  • Permitted by law.
One must act lawfully.
  • A question suggesting the answer which the person putting it wishes or expects to receive.
Leading Questions may be asked in cross examination.
  • A legislative body in the States and Union Territories of India.
The Legislative Assembly of Delhi consists of 70 members.
  • Legislative Council is the Upper House of the State Legislature.
At present only six states in India have Legislative Council.
  • The quality of being a legitimate child.
Section 16 of the Hindu Marriage Act talks of Legitimacy of Children of Void and Voidable Marriages.
  • Lawfully begotten.
A child of a void marriage is legitimate .
  • The state of being bound or obliged in law or justice to do, pay, or make good something; legal responsibility.
Co-sureties are liable to contribute equally.
  • A right to keep possession of property belonging to another person until a debt owed by that person is discharged.
A has lien over the property.
  • A term given to the interest in property that lasts for a person’s life time.
A created B's life interest in his estate.
  • Sustenance or support allowance.
The court ordered the husband to pay the maintenance to his wife.
  • Maintenance provided by the court during the pendency of the proceedings.
Either the husband or the wife can apply for maintenance pendente lite.
  • One who has attained the age of majority i.e. an age at which he becomes legally capable of conducting his own affairs.
An agreement in restraint of marriage with a major is void.
  • Pertaining to malice (Malice - Intentional doing of a wrongful act).
The malicious intention of the party was proved.
  • Court may either regard such fact as proved, unless and until it is disproved, or may call for proof of it.
The court may presume that certified copies of foreign judicial records are genuine.
  • A person who has not attained majority.
A contract made with a minor is void.
  • A statement or conduct which conveys a false or wrong impression.
A contract where the consent is caused by misrepresentation is voidable.
  • Money bills are concerned with financial matters like taxation, public expenditure, etc. and is defined in Article 110 of the Indian Constitution.
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha certifies if a financial bill is a Money Bill or not.
  • The morally culpable quality held to be present in some criminal offences as distinguished from others.
Committing an offence involving moral turpitude is a ground for disqualification of the member of Juvenile Justice Board.
  • The transfer of an interest in immovable property for the purpose of securing the payment of money advanced by way of loan.
A mortgaged his ancestral property to B.
  • Property which can be removed or displaced.
The transfer of movable property is dealt by Sale of Goods Act.
  • The crime of killing a person under circumstances previously defined by statute.
The punishment for the offence of murder is provided by Section 302 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • To render imperfect by cutting off or destroying a part.
The body of the deceased was found in mutilated condition.
  • As agreed to by the people involved.
Divorce by mutual consent requires a cooling off period of at least 6 months before second motion under general circumstances.
  • Navy is a branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare.
INS Vikrant is an aircraft carrier in service with Indian Navy.
  • No arrest without warrant.
Investigation in a non cognizable offence requires an order of magistrate.
  • Otherwise than by a will.
A non-testamentary instrument that creates any right needs to be registered.
  • A solemn appeal usually formal calling upon God to witness to the truth of what one says or to witness that one sincerely intends to do what one says.
Oath to the president is administered by the Chief Justice of India.
  • a duty to do or not to do something
Obligation includes every duty enforceable by law.
  • Evidence given orally.
Facts can be proved by oral evidence under Section 59 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
  • An authoritative direction, mandate passed by a court or judge.
The court passed an injunction order.
  • To dominate or prevail over.
Governer's power to pardon overrides Section 433A of Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC).
  • To dominate or prevail over.
Governer's power to pardon overrides Section 433A of Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC).
  • To prevail or take precedence over
Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 has overriding effect.
  • A defect, or anomaly that can be found easily upon inspection.
A patent defect was found in the record.
  • A person destitute of means except as are derived from charity.
A pauper can file a suit under Order 33 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • Where bailment is for the purpose of payment of debt or performance of promise, bailee in that case is pawnee.
Under a pledge pawnee has a right to retainer.
  • Where bailment is for the purpose of payment of debt or performance of promise, bailor in that case is pawnor.
Under a pledge pawnor has a right to redeem.
  • A jurisdiction as limited by the value of the subject matter of the suit.
The pecuniary jurisdiction of civil court was increased from 3 lakhs to 20 lakh.
  • A punishment imposed for breach of any law, rule or contract.
Penalty was imposed for non-payment of fee on time.
  • Alimony provided by the court of law at any time when the decree is passed or thereafter.
Court can provide permanent alimony under S. 25 of The Hindu Marriage Act,1955.
  • Injunction which forms part of judgement or order and is not restricted as to time.
The provision of Perpetual Injunction is contained in the Specific Relief Act, 1963.
  • The act of personating someone.
Cheating by personation is defined under S. 416 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • Pleading by a person who admits that he has committed a crime.
The court can convict the accused on his plea of guilty.
  • The bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise.
A pledged the goods with B.
  • Physical Control whether actual or in the eyes of law.
A's house is in possession of B.
  • An introductory part of the statute, ordinance or regulation.
The preamble to the constitution is a part of the Constitution.
  • A written order or a mandate.
Any attachment under precepts shall not continue for more than two months.
  • To lay down by rules.
Prescribed under Civil Procedure Code means prescribed by the rules.
  • The act of keeping safe from injury, harm or destruction.
Preservation of our non-renewable natural resources is very important.
  • The constitutional head in a Republican Government.
The election of president is provided by Article 54 of the Constitution of India.
  • To hold as proved unless otherwise shown.
A child below 7 years of age is presumed innocent by the law.
  • A relief intended to prevent an injury.
Preventive Relief can be granted under the Specific Relief Act, 1963.
  • On the face of it.
No prima facie case was made out against the accused.
  • One who employs others to act for him subject to his general control.
Principal can appoint an agent who is not a minor.
  • A person who is kept in prison.
The Criminal Court may examine a prisoner as a witness.
  • A right to protect body and property of oneself and others.
If a person tries to commit rape of a woman, she has the right of private defence to even cause death.
  • A privileged communication is a conversation between two parties that is legally classified as a private discussion.
Privileged communications are provided under the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
  • The judicial procedure by which a testamentary document is established to be a valid will.
When the application is for probate, that the petitioner is the executor named in the Will.
  • To forbid by authority or command.
Smoking is prohibited at a public place.
  • a firm agreement to perform an act, refrain from acting or make a payment or delivery.
A proposal when accepted becomes a promise.
  • The person to whom the promise is made.
The person accepting the promise is called the promisee.
  • The person making the promise.
The person making the promise is called the promisor.
  • The legal document by which a monetary liability is created on the promisor in favour of a promisee..
A created a pronote in favour of B.
  • When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal;
A proposal when accepted becomes a promise.
  • The party by whom criminal proceedings are instituted or conducted.
Prosecution failed to produce adequate evidence.
  • A clause inserted in a legal or formal document related to some condition, stipulation, exception or limitation on subject matter.
While reading any provision of law, proviso must be read carefully.
  • The action of an act or existing anger, resentment or irritation.
Grave and sudden provocation is an exception to the offence of murder.
  • Relating to or denoting drugs that affect a person's mental state.
Almost all psychotropic drugs have harmful side effects.
  • Litigation undertaken to secure public interest and demonstrate the availability of justice to socially-disadvantaged parties.
Concept of Locus Standi is not strictly followed in case of Public Interest Litigation.
  • An act that is illegal because it interferes with the rights of the public generally.
Public Nuisance is defined under section 268 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • A public officer charged with the investigation and prosecution of punishable acts on behalf of state.
A public prosecutor can be appointed under Section 24 of The Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • An obligation is imposed by law on parties because of a relationship between parties or because one of them would otherwise be unjustly enriched.
S. 68-72 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 deals with Quasi Contracts.
  • Essentially judicial in character but not within the judicial power or function especially as constitutionally defined.
Tribunals in India are quasi-judicial bodies.
  • The money, price or consideration paid or demanded for the release of a person or restoration of a thing.
Kidnapping for ransom is punishable under Section 364-A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • An act which is done without due care and attention.
Whoever causes death by rash and negligent act can be punished under Section 304A of the India Penal Code, 1860.
  • The confirmation of a previous act done either by the party himself or by another
No valid ratification can be made by a person whose knowledge of the facts of the case is materially defective.
  • To confirm or make valid by giving consent.
India ratified to Equal Remuneration Convention in 1958.
  • The examination of a witness subsequent to the cross examination by the party who called him.
Leading questions must not, if objected to by the adverse party be asked in an re-examination.
  • An account of some fact or event preserved in writing or other permanent form.
The Supreme Court of India is a Court of Records.
  • Correcting the errors of the instrument.
An instrument may be rectified on the ground of fraud or mutual mistake of the parties.
  • The action of referring.
Reference can only be made under Civil Procedure Code to the High Court.
  • Someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a fear of being persecuted.
Since independence, India has accepted various groups of refugees from neighboring countries.
  • Pertinent ( connected with what is happening or being talked about ).
Legally relevant facts are admissible in courts.
  • Legal Redressal or remedy.
The court granted appropriate relief to the parties.
  • A case or suit already decided.
The principle of Res Judicata is provided by Section 11 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • An action of restraint.
Person arrested shall not be subjected to more restraint than is necessary.
  • The annual or periodical yield of taxes, excises, customs, duties etc. that an entity collects and receives into the treasury for public use.
Revenue matters are dealt by Revenue Courts.
  • The process under which a court in certain circumstances can reconsider its own judgement.
The aggrieved person may apply for review of judgement to the court which passed the decree.
  • The act of examining again in order to remove any defect or grant relief against the irregular or improper exercise or non-exercise of jurisdiction by a lower court.
Revision can be made on the ground that the court has failed to exercise jurisdiction vested in it.
  • The act of revoking.
Section 6 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 specifies about the procedure for revocation of proposal.
  • To call back, To rescind.
Principal can revoke agent's authority any time before it has been exercised.
  • A violent disturbance of peace by members of unlawful assembly.
Offence of rioting is punishable under S. 147 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • An appendix to an act of legislature containing a statement of detail or taking the form of detailed list of relevant matter.
The Constitution of India contains 12 schedules.
  • Property as assurance to secure fulfilment of an obligation and forfeitable in the event of non fulfilment.
C pledged her house as a security for loan.
  • The action of seizing.
Decree for specific movable property may be executed by seizure.
  • To annul, quash.
The subordinate court's order was set aside.
  • Capable of being separated.
If part of a contract is void and is severable, the rest of the contract must be performed.
  • Whenever it is directed by IEA that the Court shall presume a fact, it shall regard such fact as proved, unless and until it is disproved.
The court shall presume genuineness of every electronic record purporting to be an official gazette.
  • To enter into a marriage contract with due publication
A Hindu marriage may be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of either party thereto.
  • That imprisonment during which a convict is segregated from other convicts and kept alone.
The limit of solitary confinement is 3 months.
  • A state of mind in which one can understand the nature of man's action and form a judgement of his own.
Only a sound mind person can make a contract.
  • State list includes the important subjects on which the state government can pass the law.
State List of the Constitution of India enumerates 66 subjects.
  • In course of trial.
How to deal with matters Sub-Judice, is provided by S.10 of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • The state judiciary consists of a High Court and a hierarchy of subordinate courts, also known as lower courts. The subordinate courts are so-called because of their subordination to the state high court.
Chapter VI of the Constitution of India deals with the provision of subordinate courts.
  • An allowance for maintenance granted under special circumstances.
The State Government may fix scale for subsistence allowance.
  • The process by which one person succeeds another in the occupation or possession of any estate or the like.
A got B's property by intestate succession.
  • The Highest Court of Justice in India.
The Supreme Court has advisory jurisdiction under Art 143 of the Constitution of India.
  • A person who finds himself for the payment of sum of money or for the performance of something else for another who is already bound for the same.
A acted as a surety for B in the Contract of guarantee.
  • An injunction passed on temporary basis.
The provision of Temporary Injunction is contained in the Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
  • One who holds land, house etc. by lease.
The tenant was evicted under the Delhi Rent Control Act.
  • To put an end to something.
An agency terminates on the death of principal.
  • Jurisdiction over cases arising in or involving persons/property within a defined territory.
The dispute relating to partition of property comes under the territorial jurisdiction of court where the property is situated.
  • Relating to will.
Testamentary succession is governed by The Indian Succession Act 1925.
  • One who makes the will.
The testator donated his property to charity by way of will.
  • The statement made by a witness under oath.
The testimony of the witness was recorded.
  • Poisonous
Some factories release toxic substances into the atmosphere.
  • A mark used by a manufacturer or trader to distinguish his goods from the goods of another.
Registration of trade mark is not mandatory in India.
  • Human Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people through force, fraud or deception, with the aim of exploiting them for profit.
Trafficking of a person is punishable under S. 370 of The Indian Penal Code, 1860.
  • A transaction is a group of facts, connected together to be referred to by a single legal name, a crime, contract, wrong or any other subject of enquiry which may be in issue.
Res gestae includes facts forming part of same transaction.
  • Judicial or quasi-judicial institutions established by law..
An appeal against the order of National Green Tribunal lies to the Supreme Court.
  • Valuation below the real worth.
The suit property was undervalued.
  • Union List in seventh schedule of Constitution includes subjects of national importances.
The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List.
  • That which is contrary to law or not authorized by law.
For formation of a contract the consideration must not be unlawful.
  • An assembly of 5 or more persons constituted to do an act prohibited by law.
A person who intentionally joins an unlawful assembly is said to be member of that assembly.
  • When two persons are descended from a common ancestress but by different husbands
Degrees of prohibited relationship includes relationship by half or uterine blood and full blood.
  • To make void, To make of no authority or validity.
The Court vacated its stay order.
  • Of worth or value.
A signed blank cheque is a valuable security.
  • It denotes a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extinguished or released, or whereby any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right.
A promissory note is a valuable security.
  • Language spoken by the people of a country or any part thereof.
Samachar Darpan was the first vernacular newspaper published in India.
  • An element of Panchayati Raj that functions at the village level for the welfare and development of the village.
States are empowered to organize village panchayats under Article 40 of the Constitution of India.
  • Having no legal force or binding effect.
An illegal contract is considered void.
  • With one's own will.
Gift is a voluntary transfer of property without consideration.
  • Something (especially a sum of money) laid down on issue of an uncertain event .
Agreements by way of wager are void.
  • Unjust
He was punished for the wrongful possession of a gun.
  • A gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled.
The provision for Wrongful Gain is provided by Section 23 of the Indian Penal Code.
  • A loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled.
The provision for Wrongful Loss is provided by Section 23 of the Indian Penal Code.
  • Possession by a person not entitled to the property or obtains possession through wrongful means.
A is in wrongful possession of B's property.
  • A proper way to address a judge in court.
Your Honor, I object to the witness's testimony.